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Table 1—

Characteristics measured at baseline in individuals with or without incident PVD at 6 years after diagnosis of diabeteslegend

Potential risk factorPVD present at 6 years but not at diagnosis of diabetes
P value*
YesNo
n 61 2,337  
Age (years) 57.6 60.0 <0.001 
Sex (% men/women) 57 60 0.67 
Race (% White/South Asian/Afro-Caribbean) 84/11/5 82/11/7 0.79 
   0.48 
Height (cm) 166.6 (9) 167.8 (10) 0.35 
BMI (kg/m226.7 (4.20) 27.6 (5.06) 0.17 
SBP (mmHg) 145 (22) 134 (19) <0.001 
DBP (mmHg) 83 (10) 82 (10) 0.39 
HbA1c (%) 7.9 (1.8) 7.2 (1.8) <0.001 
Fasting plasma insulin (mU/l) 13.0 (7.0–23.6) 11.9 (6.7–21.2) 0.22 
Total cholesterol (mmol/l) 5.5 (1.0) 5.3 (1.1) 0.12 
LDL cholesterol (mmol/l) 3.7 (1.0) 3.5 (1.0) 0.013 
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l) 1.0 (0.2) 1.1 (0.2) 0.011 
Triglyceride (mmol/l) 1.7 (1.0–2.8) 1.5 (0.9–2.5) 0.057 
Hemoglobin (g/dl) 14.9 (1.4) 15.0 (1.4) 0.58 
White blood cell count (1,000 cells/mm37.2 (1.8) 6.9 (1.9) 0.24 
ESR (upper quartile) 40% 25% 0.008 
Albuminuria 16.2% 6.6% 0.003 
Biothesiometer reading (volts) 15.7 (9.4–26.3) 12.2 (7.4–20.2) <0.001 
Retinopathy 49% 35% 0.021 
Former cardiovascular disease 13% 4% <0.001 
Erectile dysfunction 9% 6% 0.57 
Alcohol 72% 76% 0.49 
Aspirin use (current) 18% 19% 0.83 
Exercise (% sedentary/moderate/active/fit) 28/33/36/3 21/34/41/4 0.58 
Smoking (% current/former smokers/never) 53/26/21 29/36/35 <0.001 
Potential risk factorPVD present at 6 years but not at diagnosis of diabetes
P value*
YesNo
n 61 2,337  
Age (years) 57.6 60.0 <0.001 
Sex (% men/women) 57 60 0.67 
Race (% White/South Asian/Afro-Caribbean) 84/11/5 82/11/7 0.79 
   0.48 
Height (cm) 166.6 (9) 167.8 (10) 0.35 
BMI (kg/m226.7 (4.20) 27.6 (5.06) 0.17 
SBP (mmHg) 145 (22) 134 (19) <0.001 
DBP (mmHg) 83 (10) 82 (10) 0.39 
HbA1c (%) 7.9 (1.8) 7.2 (1.8) <0.001 
Fasting plasma insulin (mU/l) 13.0 (7.0–23.6) 11.9 (6.7–21.2) 0.22 
Total cholesterol (mmol/l) 5.5 (1.0) 5.3 (1.1) 0.12 
LDL cholesterol (mmol/l) 3.7 (1.0) 3.5 (1.0) 0.013 
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l) 1.0 (0.2) 1.1 (0.2) 0.011 
Triglyceride (mmol/l) 1.7 (1.0–2.8) 1.5 (0.9–2.5) 0.057 
Hemoglobin (g/dl) 14.9 (1.4) 15.0 (1.4) 0.58 
White blood cell count (1,000 cells/mm37.2 (1.8) 6.9 (1.9) 0.24 
ESR (upper quartile) 40% 25% 0.008 
Albuminuria 16.2% 6.6% 0.003 
Biothesiometer reading (volts) 15.7 (9.4–26.3) 12.2 (7.4–20.2) <0.001 
Retinopathy 49% 35% 0.021 
Former cardiovascular disease 13% 4% <0.001 
Erectile dysfunction 9% 6% 0.57 
Alcohol 72% 76% 0.49 
Aspirin use (current) 18% 19% 0.83 
Exercise (% sedentary/moderate/active/fit) 28/33/36/3 21/34/41/4 0.58 
Smoking (% current/former smokers/never) 53/26/21 29/36/35 <0.001 
legend

Data are mean (SD), geometric mean (1-SD range), or %.

*

For univariate analyses, logistic regression was used. Reference is for

South Asians or

Afro-Caribbean relative to whites.

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