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Table 1

Randomized controlled trials evaluating the effect of statin use risk of incident type 2 diabetes

Study population, follow-up timeMedian follow-upIntervention (sample size)Diagnosis of incident diabetesResults for primary outcome, RR (95%CI)Results for diabetes
Incident diabetes cases (n in statin group/n in placebo group)RR (95% CI) for diabetes comparing statin treatment with placebo
WOSCOPS (2001)1 Men aged 45–67 years (mean 55.2 years) from West of Scotland with moderately elevated cholesterol 4.9 years Pravastatin 40 mg (n = 2,999) vs. placebo (n = 2,975) Fasting glucose ≥126 mg/dl on two occasions, one of which must be ≥36 mg/dl above baseline or use of hypoglycemic agents Nonfatal MI and cardiovascular death, 0.69 (0.57–0.83) 57/82 0.7 (0.50–0.99) 
HPS (2003)2 Adults (78% men) aged 40–80 years (mean 62.1 years) with occlusive arterial disease 4.6 years Simvastatin 40 mg (n = 7,291) vs. placebo (n = 7,282) Initiation of pharmacotherapy for diabetes or a specific report of diabetes during follow-up All-cause mortality, 0.87 (0.81–0.94) 335/293 1.14 (0.98–1.33) 
ASCOT (2003)3 Adults aged 40–79 years (mean 63.2 years) with hypertension and at high-risk for CVD 3.3 years Atorvastatin 10 mg (n = 3,910) vs. placebo (n = 3,863) Fasting glucose ≥126 mg/dl or 2-h OGTT glucose level ≥200 mg/dl Nonfatal MI, cardiovascular death, 0.64 (0.50–0.83) 154/134 1.15 (0.91–1.44) 
LIPID (2003)4 Adults aged 31–75 years (mean 62 years) with CVD 5 years Pravastatin 40 mg (n = 3,970) vs. placebo (n = 3,967) Fasting glucose ≥126 mg/dl or reported use of diabetes medication (oral agents or insulin) Cardiovascular death, 0.76 (0.65–0.88) 172/181 0.95 (0.77–1.16) 
CORONA (2007)5 Elderly adults (mean age 73 years) with heart failure 2.7 years Rosuvastatin 10 mg (n = 1,771) vs. placebo (n = 1,763) Physician-diagnosed diabetes Cardiovascular death, nonfatal MI, and nonfatal stroke, 0.92 (0.83–1.02)  Number of incident diabetes cases: 100 in statin group and 88 in placebo group. RR for diabetes comparing statin treatment with placebo: 1.13 (95% CI: 0.86, 1.50) 
JUPITER (2008)6 Multicenter trial with a median follow-up of 1.9 years. Apparently healthy men and women (median age 66 years) with LDL cholesterol <130 mg/dl and hsCRP ≥2.0 mg/l 1.9 years Rosuvastatin, 20 mg (n = 8,901) vs. placebo (n = 8,901) Physician-diagnosed diabetes Nonfatal MI and stroke, unstable angina, arterial revascularization, and cardiovascular death, 0.56 (0.46–0.69) 270/216 1.25 1.05–1.49) 
Study population, follow-up timeMedian follow-upIntervention (sample size)Diagnosis of incident diabetesResults for primary outcome, RR (95%CI)Results for diabetes
Incident diabetes cases (n in statin group/n in placebo group)RR (95% CI) for diabetes comparing statin treatment with placebo
WOSCOPS (2001)1 Men aged 45–67 years (mean 55.2 years) from West of Scotland with moderately elevated cholesterol 4.9 years Pravastatin 40 mg (n = 2,999) vs. placebo (n = 2,975) Fasting glucose ≥126 mg/dl on two occasions, one of which must be ≥36 mg/dl above baseline or use of hypoglycemic agents Nonfatal MI and cardiovascular death, 0.69 (0.57–0.83) 57/82 0.7 (0.50–0.99) 
HPS (2003)2 Adults (78% men) aged 40–80 years (mean 62.1 years) with occlusive arterial disease 4.6 years Simvastatin 40 mg (n = 7,291) vs. placebo (n = 7,282) Initiation of pharmacotherapy for diabetes or a specific report of diabetes during follow-up All-cause mortality, 0.87 (0.81–0.94) 335/293 1.14 (0.98–1.33) 
ASCOT (2003)3 Adults aged 40–79 years (mean 63.2 years) with hypertension and at high-risk for CVD 3.3 years Atorvastatin 10 mg (n = 3,910) vs. placebo (n = 3,863) Fasting glucose ≥126 mg/dl or 2-h OGTT glucose level ≥200 mg/dl Nonfatal MI, cardiovascular death, 0.64 (0.50–0.83) 154/134 1.15 (0.91–1.44) 
LIPID (2003)4 Adults aged 31–75 years (mean 62 years) with CVD 5 years Pravastatin 40 mg (n = 3,970) vs. placebo (n = 3,967) Fasting glucose ≥126 mg/dl or reported use of diabetes medication (oral agents or insulin) Cardiovascular death, 0.76 (0.65–0.88) 172/181 0.95 (0.77–1.16) 
CORONA (2007)5 Elderly adults (mean age 73 years) with heart failure 2.7 years Rosuvastatin 10 mg (n = 1,771) vs. placebo (n = 1,763) Physician-diagnosed diabetes Cardiovascular death, nonfatal MI, and nonfatal stroke, 0.92 (0.83–1.02)  Number of incident diabetes cases: 100 in statin group and 88 in placebo group. RR for diabetes comparing statin treatment with placebo: 1.13 (95% CI: 0.86, 1.50) 
JUPITER (2008)6 Multicenter trial with a median follow-up of 1.9 years. Apparently healthy men and women (median age 66 years) with LDL cholesterol <130 mg/dl and hsCRP ≥2.0 mg/l 1.9 years Rosuvastatin, 20 mg (n = 8,901) vs. placebo (n = 8,901) Physician-diagnosed diabetes Nonfatal MI and stroke, unstable angina, arterial revascularization, and cardiovascular death, 0.56 (0.46–0.69) 270/216 1.25 1.05–1.49) 

hsCRP, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein; MI, myocardial infarction; OGTT, oral glucose tolerance test.

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