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Table 1

Characteristics of 921 participants with diabetes, the MESA

No retinopathyDiabetic retinopathyP*
n 643 278  
Sex (male) 51.9 52.1 0.96 
Race   0.01 
    White 24.6 16.2  
    African American 33.7 40.3  
    Hispanic 28.6 33.1  
    Chinese 13.1 10.4  
History of alcohol consumption 38.4 34.7 0.26 
Current cigarette smoker 11.4 10.1 0.56 
Hypertension 71.7 76.8 0.09 
Use of oral diabetes medication 47.2 55.5 <0.001 
Use of insulin 5.9 21.5 <0.001 
Age (years) 65.3 ± 9.2 65.0 ± 9.2 0.60 
Serum glucose (mg/dl) 148.5 ± 49.0 166.1 ± 63.4 <0.001 
SBP (mmHg) 129.3 ± 20.0 133.9 ± 24.9 0.003 
Diabetes duration (years) 0 (5) 7 (15) <0.001 
A1C (%) 7.03 ± 1.44 7.78 ± 1.85 <0.001 
BMI (kg/m230.9 ± 6.12 30.6 ± 5.96 0.43 
Plasma total cholesterol (mg/dl) 181.5 ± 36.4 182.6 ± 38.6 0.70 
HDL cholesterol (mg/dl) 46.2 ± 12.9 47.2 ± 12.7 0.25 
Triglycerides (mg/dl) 163.5 ± 119.6 148.2 ± 101.2 0.06 
CRP (mg/dl) 2.6 (4.7) 2.5 (4.7) 0.66 
Plasma fibrinogen (mg/dl) 360 ± 79.2 370 ± 81.1 0.006 
PAP (nmol/l) 4.0 (1.9) 4.4 (2.4) <0.001 
IL-6 (pg/ml) 1.5 (1.3) 1.5 (1.4) 0.83 
d-Dimer (ug/ml) 0.2 (0.3) 0.2 (0.2) 0.96 
Factor VIII (%) 184 ± 72.5 187 ± 80.9 0.60 
Creatinine (mg/dl) 0.9 (0.2) 0.9 (0.4) 0.24 
UAC ratio (mg/dl) 8.6 (16.3) 14.9 (48.5) <0.001 
Homocysteine (μmol/l) 8.8 (3.7) 8.9 (3.4) 0.58 
No retinopathyDiabetic retinopathyP*
n 643 278  
Sex (male) 51.9 52.1 0.96 
Race   0.01 
    White 24.6 16.2  
    African American 33.7 40.3  
    Hispanic 28.6 33.1  
    Chinese 13.1 10.4  
History of alcohol consumption 38.4 34.7 0.26 
Current cigarette smoker 11.4 10.1 0.56 
Hypertension 71.7 76.8 0.09 
Use of oral diabetes medication 47.2 55.5 <0.001 
Use of insulin 5.9 21.5 <0.001 
Age (years) 65.3 ± 9.2 65.0 ± 9.2 0.60 
Serum glucose (mg/dl) 148.5 ± 49.0 166.1 ± 63.4 <0.001 
SBP (mmHg) 129.3 ± 20.0 133.9 ± 24.9 0.003 
Diabetes duration (years) 0 (5) 7 (15) <0.001 
A1C (%) 7.03 ± 1.44 7.78 ± 1.85 <0.001 
BMI (kg/m230.9 ± 6.12 30.6 ± 5.96 0.43 
Plasma total cholesterol (mg/dl) 181.5 ± 36.4 182.6 ± 38.6 0.70 
HDL cholesterol (mg/dl) 46.2 ± 12.9 47.2 ± 12.7 0.25 
Triglycerides (mg/dl) 163.5 ± 119.6 148.2 ± 101.2 0.06 
CRP (mg/dl) 2.6 (4.7) 2.5 (4.7) 0.66 
Plasma fibrinogen (mg/dl) 360 ± 79.2 370 ± 81.1 0.006 
PAP (nmol/l) 4.0 (1.9) 4.4 (2.4) <0.001 
IL-6 (pg/ml) 1.5 (1.3) 1.5 (1.4) 0.83 
d-Dimer (ug/ml) 0.2 (0.3) 0.2 (0.2) 0.96 
Factor VIII (%) 184 ± 72.5 187 ± 80.9 0.60 
Creatinine (mg/dl) 0.9 (0.2) 0.9 (0.4) 0.24 
UAC ratio (mg/dl) 8.6 (16.3) 14.9 (48.5) <0.001 
Homocysteine (μmol/l) 8.8 (3.7) 8.9 (3.4) 0.58 

Data are percent, means ± SD, or median (interquartile range). Data were obtained during the first examination (from July 2000 to August 2002), except for retinopathy, which was collected during the second examination (from August 2002 to January 2004).

*P value based on χ2 (categorical), t test (quantitative and normal), or Mann-Whitney U test (quantitative and skewed), comparing diabetes participants with and without retinopathy.

†Results are shown as median (interquartile range) for skewness.

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