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Table 2

Relationship of inflammatory and hemostatic factors with any diabetic retinopathy and vision-threatening retinopathy

Per SD change in risk factorsAny retinopathy
Vision-threatening retinopathy
Model 1*PModel 2PModel 3PModel 1*PModel 2PModel 3P
Plasma fibrinogen 1.14 0.05 1.14 0.05 1.16 0.05 1.30 0.05 1.25 0.11 1.23 0.15 
    79.5 mg/dl increase (1.01–1.32)  (1.0–1.32)  (1.00–1.35)  (1.00–1.72)  (0.94–1.66)  (0.93–1.62)  
PAP complex 1.25 0.01 1.25 0.01 1.28 0.008 1.54 0.007 1.52 0.009 1.51 0.01 
    2.45 nmol/l increase (1.05–1.50)  (1.0–1.50)  (1.07–1.54)  (1.13–2.11)  (1.11–2.08)  (1.10–2.08)  
Creatinine 0.99 0.76 0.89 0.16 — — 1.39 0.006 1.38 0.006 — — 
    0.42 mg/dl increase (0.90–1.08)  (0.7–1.05)    (1.10–1.75)  (1.09–1.74)    
UAC ratio 1.19 0.006 — — — — 1.42 0.002 — — — — 
    216 mg/dl increase (1.05–1.35)      (1.14–1.78)      
Homocysteine 0.93 0.44 0.92 0.40 0.98 0.89 1.57 0.003 1.50 0.01 1.27 0.22 
    3.3 μmol/l increase (0.78–1.12)  (0.7–1.12)  (0.80–1.22)  (1.16–2.11)  (1.10–2.05)  (0.87–1.85)  
Per SD change in risk factorsAny retinopathy
Vision-threatening retinopathy
Model 1*PModel 2PModel 3PModel 1*PModel 2PModel 3P
Plasma fibrinogen 1.14 0.05 1.14 0.05 1.16 0.05 1.30 0.05 1.25 0.11 1.23 0.15 
    79.5 mg/dl increase (1.01–1.32)  (1.0–1.32)  (1.00–1.35)  (1.00–1.72)  (0.94–1.66)  (0.93–1.62)  
PAP complex 1.25 0.01 1.25 0.01 1.28 0.008 1.54 0.007 1.52 0.009 1.51 0.01 
    2.45 nmol/l increase (1.05–1.50)  (1.0–1.50)  (1.07–1.54)  (1.13–2.11)  (1.11–2.08)  (1.10–2.08)  
Creatinine 0.99 0.76 0.89 0.16 — — 1.39 0.006 1.38 0.006 — — 
    0.42 mg/dl increase (0.90–1.08)  (0.7–1.05)    (1.10–1.75)  (1.09–1.74)    
UAC ratio 1.19 0.006 — — — — 1.42 0.002 — — — — 
    216 mg/dl increase (1.05–1.35)      (1.14–1.78)      
Homocysteine 0.93 0.44 0.92 0.40 0.98 0.89 1.57 0.003 1.50 0.01 1.27 0.22 
    3.3 μmol/l increase (0.78–1.12)  (0.7–1.12)  (0.80–1.22)  (1.16–2.11)  (1.10–2.05)  (0.87–1.85)  

Data are odds ratio (95% CI) and were obtained during the first examination (from July 2000 to August 2002) except for retinopathy, which was collected during the second examination (from August 2002 to January 2004). Each risk factor is in a separate model.

*Model 1: adjusted for age, sex, race, study center, SBP, use of diabetes medications, duration of diabetes, A1C, and waist-to-hip ratio.

†Model 2: model 1 plus UAC ratio.

‡Model 3: model 2 plus creatinine.

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