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Table 1—

Participant characteristics by organizational model type and health plan profit status.

CharacteristicFor-profit health plan (n = 4)
Nonprofit health plan (n = 6)
Group/staff
Group/networkIPA*Group/networkIPA*
Provider groups (n15 10 17 18 
Managed care experience (years) 15 15 15 51 
Participants (n1,013 1,248 2,203 757 3,133 
Mean age (years) 66 64 57 63 61 
Women (%) 54 54 61 51 49 
Race or ethnicity (%)      
 White non-Hispanic 28 46 49 64 38 
 Black non-Hispanic 29 32 11 
 Hispanic 63 18 14 
 Asian or Pacific Islander 10 14 27 
 Other 13 
Education (%)      
 8th grade or less 30 12 10 
 Some high school 12 15 21 12 
 High school/GED 24 31 30 31 29 
 Some college 23 26 22 32 34 
 4-year college graduate 10 11 
 >4-year college degree 11 
Annual household income (%)      
 <$15,000 46 32 50 30 16 
 $15,000–39,000 33 34 22 35 34 
 $40,000–74,999 16 20 15 21 31 
 >$75,000 13 12 14 19 
Interview conducted in Spanish (%) 13 
Diabetes duration (mean years) 13 14 12 13 12 
Diabetes treatment (%)      
 Diet and exercise only 13 
 Oral medication only 72 68 52 61 61 
 Insulin only 10 15 27 23 16 
 Insulin and oral medication 12 13 15 11 10 
Health status (%)      
 Excellent 
 Very good 18 19 16 16 19 
 Good 41 42 33 42 42 
 Fair 29 29 34 31 29 
 Poor 13 
Charlson comorbidity index (mean) 1.8 2.0 2.4 2.5 2.4 
CharacteristicFor-profit health plan (n = 4)
Nonprofit health plan (n = 6)
Group/staff
Group/networkIPA*Group/networkIPA*
Provider groups (n15 10 17 18 
Managed care experience (years) 15 15 15 51 
Participants (n1,013 1,248 2,203 757 3,133 
Mean age (years) 66 64 57 63 61 
Women (%) 54 54 61 51 49 
Race or ethnicity (%)      
 White non-Hispanic 28 46 49 64 38 
 Black non-Hispanic 29 32 11 
 Hispanic 63 18 14 
 Asian or Pacific Islander 10 14 27 
 Other 13 
Education (%)      
 8th grade or less 30 12 10 
 Some high school 12 15 21 12 
 High school/GED 24 31 30 31 29 
 Some college 23 26 22 32 34 
 4-year college graduate 10 11 
 >4-year college degree 11 
Annual household income (%)      
 <$15,000 46 32 50 30 16 
 $15,000–39,000 33 34 22 35 34 
 $40,000–74,999 16 20 15 21 31 
 >$75,000 13 12 14 19 
Interview conducted in Spanish (%) 13 
Diabetes duration (mean years) 13 14 12 13 12 
Diabetes treatment (%)      
 Diet and exercise only 13 
 Oral medication only 72 68 52 61 61 
 Insulin only 10 15 27 23 16 
 Insulin and oral medication 12 13 15 11 10 
Health status (%)      
 Excellent 
 Very good 18 19 16 16 19 
 Good 41 42 33 42 42 
 Fair 29 29 34 31 29 
 Poor 13 
Charlson comorbidity index (mean) 1.8 2.0 2.4 2.5 2.4 
*

Includes IPA and direct-contracting models.

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