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Table 1—

Characteristics of adults with and without diabetes, U.S., 1999

Diabetes (n = 1,794, N = 10,318,191)No diabetes (n = 28,228, N = 184,883,434)P
Age (years)   <0.001 
 ≥65 39.7 (1.33) 15.0 (0.27)  
 50–64 35.5 (1.37) 18.9 (0.26)  
 35–49 18.0 (1.09) 32.7 (0.35)  
 18–34 6.8 (0.73) 33.5 (0.40)  
Women 53.1 (1.12) 52.2 (0.35) 0.550 
Race/ethnicity   <0.001 
 Non-Hispanic white 68.5 (1.27) 75.3 (0.40)  
 Hispanic 11.5 (0.84) 10.1 (0.27)  
 Non-Hispanic black 16.3 (0.99) 10.8 (0.29)  
 Non-Hispanic other 3.7 (0.65) 3.8 (0.18)  
Less than high school education 29.4 (1.18) 17.1 (0.31) <0.001 
Unemployed 55.8 (1.28) 25.1 (0.33) <0.001 
Household income <$20,000 32.9 (1.30) 20.1 (0.36) <0.001 
No usual source of care 3.0 (0.43) 11.0 (0.25) <0.001 
Worsening health status 16.8 (1.01) 6.8 (0.17) <0.001 
Comorbidity   <0.001 
 Zero or one chronic condition 25.6 (1.20) 90.5 (0.20)  
 Two chronic conditions 37.1 (1.37) 7.1 (0.17)  
 Three or more chronic conditions 37.3 (1.34) 2.4 (0.10)  
Emergency department visits    
 None 73.1 (1.21) 83.5 (0.28) <0.001 
 One 15.6 (0.96) 11.7 (0.24) <0.001 
 Two to three 8.1 (0.78) 3.6 (0.14) <0.001 
 Four or more 3.3 (0.45) 1.2 (0.08) <0.001 
Diabetes (n = 1,794, N = 10,318,191)No diabetes (n = 28,228, N = 184,883,434)P
Age (years)   <0.001 
 ≥65 39.7 (1.33) 15.0 (0.27)  
 50–64 35.5 (1.37) 18.9 (0.26)  
 35–49 18.0 (1.09) 32.7 (0.35)  
 18–34 6.8 (0.73) 33.5 (0.40)  
Women 53.1 (1.12) 52.2 (0.35) 0.550 
Race/ethnicity   <0.001 
 Non-Hispanic white 68.5 (1.27) 75.3 (0.40)  
 Hispanic 11.5 (0.84) 10.1 (0.27)  
 Non-Hispanic black 16.3 (0.99) 10.8 (0.29)  
 Non-Hispanic other 3.7 (0.65) 3.8 (0.18)  
Less than high school education 29.4 (1.18) 17.1 (0.31) <0.001 
Unemployed 55.8 (1.28) 25.1 (0.33) <0.001 
Household income <$20,000 32.9 (1.30) 20.1 (0.36) <0.001 
No usual source of care 3.0 (0.43) 11.0 (0.25) <0.001 
Worsening health status 16.8 (1.01) 6.8 (0.17) <0.001 
Comorbidity   <0.001 
 Zero or one chronic condition 25.6 (1.20) 90.5 (0.20)  
 Two chronic conditions 37.1 (1.37) 7.1 (0.17)  
 Three or more chronic conditions 37.3 (1.34) 2.4 (0.10)  
Emergency department visits    
 None 73.1 (1.21) 83.5 (0.28) <0.001 
 One 15.6 (0.96) 11.7 (0.24) <0.001 
 Two to three 8.1 (0.78) 3.6 (0.14) <0.001 
 Four or more 3.3 (0.45) 1.2 (0.08) <0.001 

Data are weighted percentage (SE). Comorbidity: coronary artery disease, heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, end-stage renal disease, chronic liver disease, or cancer. n, unweighted sample; N, weighted sample.

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