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Table 1—

Baseline characteristics of the study group

Type 1 diabetic patientsNondiabetic patientsP value
n 652 764 — 
Sex (% men) 46 50 0.11 
Age (years) 37 ± 9 39 ± 9 <0.0001 
BMI (kg/m226.2 ± 4.4 26.1 ± 5.0 0.64 
Ethnicity (% non-Hispanic white) 94 84 <0.0001 
Duration of diabetes (years) 23.2 ± 8.9 NA — 
Years of education (622 type 1 diabetic and 735 nondiabetic subjects) 16.0 ± 10.2 16.8 ± 9.9 0.19 
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 117 ± 14 114 ± 12 <0.0001 
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 78 ± 9 79 ± 8 0.003 
Hypertension (%) 43 15 <0.0001 
Current smoker (%) 10.3 7.9 0.11 
Ever a smoker (%) 19.5 22.3 0.20 
Albuminuria (micro/overt) (%) 13.6/8.2 2.2/0.4 <0.0001 
HbA1c (%) 8.0 ± 1.3 5.5 ± 0.5 <0.0001 
Fasting blood glucose (mg/dl) [median (interquartile range)] 180 (113–253) 89 (83–96) — 
Glycemic control (HbA1c <7.5%) (%) 36 NA — 
Continuous insulin infusion (pump use) (%) 37 NA — 
Insulin dose (units · kg−1 · day−10.61 ± 0.26 NA — 
Type 1 diabetic patientsNondiabetic patientsP value
n 652 764 — 
Sex (% men) 46 50 0.11 
Age (years) 37 ± 9 39 ± 9 <0.0001 
BMI (kg/m226.2 ± 4.4 26.1 ± 5.0 0.64 
Ethnicity (% non-Hispanic white) 94 84 <0.0001 
Duration of diabetes (years) 23.2 ± 8.9 NA — 
Years of education (622 type 1 diabetic and 735 nondiabetic subjects) 16.0 ± 10.2 16.8 ± 9.9 0.19 
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 117 ± 14 114 ± 12 <0.0001 
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 78 ± 9 79 ± 8 0.003 
Hypertension (%) 43 15 <0.0001 
Current smoker (%) 10.3 7.9 0.11 
Ever a smoker (%) 19.5 22.3 0.20 
Albuminuria (micro/overt) (%) 13.6/8.2 2.2/0.4 <0.0001 
HbA1c (%) 8.0 ± 1.3 5.5 ± 0.5 <0.0001 
Fasting blood glucose (mg/dl) [median (interquartile range)] 180 (113–253) 89 (83–96) — 
Glycemic control (HbA1c <7.5%) (%) 36 NA — 
Continuous insulin infusion (pump use) (%) 37 NA — 
Insulin dose (units · kg−1 · day−10.61 ± 0.26 NA — 

Data are means ± SD unless otherwise indicated. Values were evaluated with Student’s t test, and proportions were evaluated with χ2.

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