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Table 2—

Prevalence of celiac disease–related symptoms reported by the diabetic patients before screening for celiac disease was performed and by patients with celiac disease after 2 years of consuming a GFD

Symptoms*Patients without celiac diseasePatients with celiac diseaseP valuePatients consuming a GFD
n 236 33   
Abdominal pain 23 (9.7) 16 (48.5) <0.001 0 
Loose and/or frequent stools 15 (6.4) 7 (21.2) 0.010 2 (6.5) 
Bloating 24 (10.2) 9 (27.2) 0.021 3 (9.7) 
Constipation 2 (0.8) 3 (9.0) 0.014 
Arthralgias 10 (4.2) 7 (21.2) 0.002 1 (3.2) 
Tiredness 6 (2.5) 8 (24.2) <0.001 
Frequent hypoglycemia 1 (0.4) 2 (6.0) 0.040 
Aphthous ulcers 1 (0.4) 1 (3.0) 0.230 
Tooth enamel defects 8 (3.4) 3 (9.0) 0.139 — 
Hemoglobin <6.5 mmol/l — 4 (12.1)  
Serum ferritin <15 μg/l — 9 (27.2) — 1 (3.2) 
Thyroid antibodies 13 (5.5) 3 (9.0) 0.425 — 
Dermatitis herpetiformis 1 (3.0) 0.122 — 
Autoimmune hypothyroiditis 4 (12.1) <0.001 — 
Symptoms*Patients without celiac diseasePatients with celiac diseaseP valuePatients consuming a GFD
n 236 33   
Abdominal pain 23 (9.7) 16 (48.5) <0.001 0 
Loose and/or frequent stools 15 (6.4) 7 (21.2) 0.010 2 (6.5) 
Bloating 24 (10.2) 9 (27.2) 0.021 3 (9.7) 
Constipation 2 (0.8) 3 (9.0) 0.014 
Arthralgias 10 (4.2) 7 (21.2) 0.002 1 (3.2) 
Tiredness 6 (2.5) 8 (24.2) <0.001 
Frequent hypoglycemia 1 (0.4) 2 (6.0) 0.040 
Aphthous ulcers 1 (0.4) 1 (3.0) 0.230 
Tooth enamel defects 8 (3.4) 3 (9.0) 0.139 — 
Hemoglobin <6.5 mmol/l — 4 (12.1)  
Serum ferritin <15 μg/l — 9 (27.2) — 1 (3.2) 
Thyroid antibodies 13 (5.5) 3 (9.0) 0.425 — 
Dermatitis herpetiformis 1 (3.0) 0.122 — 
Autoimmune hypothyroiditis 4 (12.1) <0.001 — 

Data are n (%).

*

A few patients with celiac disease first reported symptoms in retrospect after experiencing the relief with the GFD (three patients reported abdominal pain, a single patient reported abdominal pain, diarrhea, and tiredness, and another patient reported arthralgias).

Some patients reported abdominal pain at breach of the diet.

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