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Table 1—

Clinical characteristics of the subjects

NGT (n = 57)IGT (n = 48)Type 2 diabetes (n = 49)P
Age (years) 52 ± 10 53 ± 12 56 ± 9 0.160 
Sex (M/F) 21/36 19/29 20/29 0.911 
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 123 ± 17 128 ± 17 129 ± 14 0.126 
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 78 ± 12 81 ± 14 81 ± 9 0.219 
BMI (kg/m224.4 ± 3.2 24.9 ± 3.1 25.3 ± 2.8 0.283 
Waist circumference (cm) 82 ± 9* 86 ± 7* 87 ± 7 0.001 
Fasting plasma glucose (mmol/l) 4.4 ± 0.8* 5.3 ± 0.8* 6.6 ± 1.0 <0.001 
2-h postchallenge plasma glucose (mmol/l) 5.9 ± 1.2* 9.2 ± 1.0* 14.5 ± 2.4 <0.001 
Fasting plasma insulin (pmol/l) 62 ± 24 71 ± 30 79 ± 36 0.016 
Triglycerides (mmol/l) 1.38 (0.43–6.08) 1.53 (0.61–8.38) 1.44 (0.44–5.86) 0.238 
Total cholesterol (mmol/l) 4.89 ± 0.92* 5.39 ± 0.97* 5.16 ± 0.79 0.019 
LDL cholesterol (mmol/l) 2.90 ± 0.79* 3.30 ± 0.88* 3.18 ± 0.68 0.032 
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l) 1.22 (0.78–2.18) 1.26 (0.73–2.67) 1.14 (0.78–2.51) 0.562 
Fat mass (kg) 16.8 ± 5.5 18.3 ± 4.6 19.2 ± 4.9 0.074 
Percent body fat 27.1 ± 6.8 27.8 ± 6.3 29.3 ± 5.8 0.229 
A1C (%) 5.6 (5.1–6.7)* 6.1 (4.6–7.1)* 6.4 (5.5–8.4) <0.001 
HOMA-IR 2.0 (0.6–4.0)* 2.7 (0.2–6.3)* 3.3 (1.1–14.0) <0.001 
HOMA-B 206 (46–874)* 117 (24–769)* 82 (31–292) <0.001 
NGT (n = 57)IGT (n = 48)Type 2 diabetes (n = 49)P
Age (years) 52 ± 10 53 ± 12 56 ± 9 0.160 
Sex (M/F) 21/36 19/29 20/29 0.911 
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 123 ± 17 128 ± 17 129 ± 14 0.126 
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 78 ± 12 81 ± 14 81 ± 9 0.219 
BMI (kg/m224.4 ± 3.2 24.9 ± 3.1 25.3 ± 2.8 0.283 
Waist circumference (cm) 82 ± 9* 86 ± 7* 87 ± 7 0.001 
Fasting plasma glucose (mmol/l) 4.4 ± 0.8* 5.3 ± 0.8* 6.6 ± 1.0 <0.001 
2-h postchallenge plasma glucose (mmol/l) 5.9 ± 1.2* 9.2 ± 1.0* 14.5 ± 2.4 <0.001 
Fasting plasma insulin (pmol/l) 62 ± 24 71 ± 30 79 ± 36 0.016 
Triglycerides (mmol/l) 1.38 (0.43–6.08) 1.53 (0.61–8.38) 1.44 (0.44–5.86) 0.238 
Total cholesterol (mmol/l) 4.89 ± 0.92* 5.39 ± 0.97* 5.16 ± 0.79 0.019 
LDL cholesterol (mmol/l) 2.90 ± 0.79* 3.30 ± 0.88* 3.18 ± 0.68 0.032 
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l) 1.22 (0.78–2.18) 1.26 (0.73–2.67) 1.14 (0.78–2.51) 0.562 
Fat mass (kg) 16.8 ± 5.5 18.3 ± 4.6 19.2 ± 4.9 0.074 
Percent body fat 27.1 ± 6.8 27.8 ± 6.3 29.3 ± 5.8 0.229 
A1C (%) 5.6 (5.1–6.7)* 6.1 (4.6–7.1)* 6.4 (5.5–8.4) <0.001 
HOMA-IR 2.0 (0.6–4.0)* 2.7 (0.2–6.3)* 3.3 (1.1–14.0) <0.001 
HOMA-B 206 (46–874)* 117 (24–769)* 82 (31–292) <0.001 

Data are means ± SD (for normal distribution) or median (range). P values are by ANOVA.

*

P < 0.05 for NGT vs. IGT;

P < 0.05 for NGT vs. type 2 diabetes,

P < 0.05 for IGT vs. type 2 diabetes.

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