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Table 5—

Clinical characteristics according to the quartiles of plasma RBP4 concentrations

First quartileSecond quartileThird quartileFourth quartileP for trend
n 38 (100) 39 (100) 38 (100) 39 (100)  
Plasma RBP4 (μg/ml) 13.4 (9.3–15.8) 17.7 (15.9–19.4) 21.1 (19.5–22.5) 26.6 (22.6–48.5) <0.001 
NGT (%) 22 (57.9) 14 (35.9) 13 (34.2) 8 (20.5)  
IGT (%) 11 (28.9) 13 (33.3) 10 (26.3) 14 (35.9) <0.001 
Type 2 diabetes (%) 5 (13.2) 12 (30.8) 15 (39.5) 17 (43.6)  
Sex (M/F) 10/28 12/27 16/22 22/17 0.004 
Age (years) 51 ± 12 53 ± 11 57 ± 10 53 ± 10 0.055 
SBP (mmHg) 123 ± 19 127 ± 15 127 ± 15 130 ± 17 0.313 
DBP (mmHg) 78 ± 12 79 ± 10 80 ± 11 82 ± 13 0.304 
BMI (kg/m224.2 ± 3.7 24.6 ± 2.9 24.9 ± 3.2 25.5 ± 2.3 0.304 
Waist (cm) 81 ± 9 84 ± 8 87 ± 8 87 ± 6 0.005 
Fat mass (kg) 17.4 ± 6.5 18.3 ± 4.5 18.0 ± 5.3 18.3 ± 3.7 0.847 
Percent body fat 27.7 ± 7.9 29.0 ± 5.5 27.8 ± 6.4 27.1 ± 5.5 0.653 
FPG (mmol/l) 4.8 ± 1.0 5.1 ± 1.1 5.5 ± 1.3 6.1 ± 1.1 <0.001 
2-h postchallenge plasma glucose (mmol/l) 7.8 ± 3.0 9.8 ± 4.0 10.2 ± 4.0 11.0 ± 3.9 0.003 
Fasting plasma insulin (pmol/l) 63 ± 37 71 ± 25 72 ± 27 75 ± 30 0.331 
Triglycerides (mmol/l)* 1.40 (0.45–4.00) 1.11 (0.44–6.60) 1.41 (0.71–8.38) 1.70 (0.43–5.86) 0.005 
Total cholesterol (mmol/l) 4.96 ± 0.80 4.95 ± 1.00 5.20 ± 0.72 5.42 ± 1.06 0.074 
LDL cholesterol (mmol/l) 3.06 ± 0.80 2.96 ± 0.72 3.17 ± 0.71 3.28 ± 0.93 0.340 
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l)* 1.24 (0.73–2.18) 1.24 (0.85–1.99) 1.18 (0.75–1.99) 1.15 (0.83–2.67) 0.905 
A1C (%)* 5.8 (5.2–7.6) 5.8 (5.1–8.1) 6.2 (5.2–8.1) 6.3 (4.6–8.4) 0.050 
HOMA-IR* 1.9 (0.2–8.8) 2.5 (0.6–5.4) 2.6 (0.9–7.5) 3.0 (1.1–14.0) <0.001 
HOMA-B* 149 (44–661) 126 (24–874) 135 (31–769) 92 (47–356) 0.063 
First quartileSecond quartileThird quartileFourth quartileP for trend
n 38 (100) 39 (100) 38 (100) 39 (100)  
Plasma RBP4 (μg/ml) 13.4 (9.3–15.8) 17.7 (15.9–19.4) 21.1 (19.5–22.5) 26.6 (22.6–48.5) <0.001 
NGT (%) 22 (57.9) 14 (35.9) 13 (34.2) 8 (20.5)  
IGT (%) 11 (28.9) 13 (33.3) 10 (26.3) 14 (35.9) <0.001 
Type 2 diabetes (%) 5 (13.2) 12 (30.8) 15 (39.5) 17 (43.6)  
Sex (M/F) 10/28 12/27 16/22 22/17 0.004 
Age (years) 51 ± 12 53 ± 11 57 ± 10 53 ± 10 0.055 
SBP (mmHg) 123 ± 19 127 ± 15 127 ± 15 130 ± 17 0.313 
DBP (mmHg) 78 ± 12 79 ± 10 80 ± 11 82 ± 13 0.304 
BMI (kg/m224.2 ± 3.7 24.6 ± 2.9 24.9 ± 3.2 25.5 ± 2.3 0.304 
Waist (cm) 81 ± 9 84 ± 8 87 ± 8 87 ± 6 0.005 
Fat mass (kg) 17.4 ± 6.5 18.3 ± 4.5 18.0 ± 5.3 18.3 ± 3.7 0.847 
Percent body fat 27.7 ± 7.9 29.0 ± 5.5 27.8 ± 6.4 27.1 ± 5.5 0.653 
FPG (mmol/l) 4.8 ± 1.0 5.1 ± 1.1 5.5 ± 1.3 6.1 ± 1.1 <0.001 
2-h postchallenge plasma glucose (mmol/l) 7.8 ± 3.0 9.8 ± 4.0 10.2 ± 4.0 11.0 ± 3.9 0.003 
Fasting plasma insulin (pmol/l) 63 ± 37 71 ± 25 72 ± 27 75 ± 30 0.331 
Triglycerides (mmol/l)* 1.40 (0.45–4.00) 1.11 (0.44–6.60) 1.41 (0.71–8.38) 1.70 (0.43–5.86) 0.005 
Total cholesterol (mmol/l) 4.96 ± 0.80 4.95 ± 1.00 5.20 ± 0.72 5.42 ± 1.06 0.074 
LDL cholesterol (mmol/l) 3.06 ± 0.80 2.96 ± 0.72 3.17 ± 0.71 3.28 ± 0.93 0.340 
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l)* 1.24 (0.73–2.18) 1.24 (0.85–1.99) 1.18 (0.75–1.99) 1.15 (0.83–2.67) 0.905 
A1C (%)* 5.8 (5.2–7.6) 5.8 (5.1–8.1) 6.2 (5.2–8.1) 6.3 (4.6–8.4) 0.050 
HOMA-IR* 1.9 (0.2–8.8) 2.5 (0.6–5.4) 2.6 (0.9–7.5) 3.0 (1.1–14.0) <0.001 
HOMA-B* 149 (44–661) 126 (24–874) 135 (31–769) 92 (47–356) 0.063 

Data are n (%) or median (range).

*

These variables were log transformed before analyses.

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