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Table 2

Associations of baseline features with 1-year case fatality after MI in patients with type 1 diabetes

VariableUnivariableMultivariable
HR (95% CI)PHR (95% CI)P
Age, years  <0.0001  <0.0001 
 <60 Reference  Reference  
 60–79 2.42 (1.95–3.01) <0.0001 2.25 (1.78–2.84) <0.0001 
 ≥80 4.13 (3.09–5.53) <0.0001 3.62 (2.59–5.05) <0.0001 
Women 0.90 (0.75–1.08) 0.271 0.91 (0.74–1.10) 0.325 
Comorbidities     
 Alcohol abuse 1.52 (1.08–2.13) 0.017 1.50 (1.04–2.17) 0.030 
 Atrial fibrillation 1.82 (1.46–2.27) <0.0001 1.10 (0.87–1.40) 0.435 
 Cerebrovascular disease 1.67 (1.37–2.04) <0.0001 1.16 (0.94–1.43) 0.158 
 Chronic pulmonary disease 1.53 (1.22–1.93) 0.0003 1.25 (0.98–1.60) 0.073 
 Diabetic retinopathy or glaucoma 0.76 (0.63–0.92) 0.003 0.95 (0.77–1.17) 0.625 
 Diabetic hypoglycemic coma 1.16 (0.90–1.50) 0.256 1.18 (0.91–1.86) 0.069 
 Diabetic neuropathy 1.00 (0.75–1.33) 0.988 1.11 (0.82–1.49) 0.495 
 Diabetic ketoacidosis 1.07 (0.78–1.46) 0.688 1.35 (0.98–1.86) 0.069 
 Dementia 2.09 (1.46–2.98) <0.0001 1.33 (0.91–1.93) 0.140 
 Heart failure 2.55 (2.13–3.05) <0.0001 1.76 (1.44–2.16) <0.0001 
 Hypertension 1.60 (1.27–2.01) <0.0001 1.05 (0.82–1.36) 0.684 
 Liver disease 2.39 (1.68–3.41) <0.0001 2.10 (1.47–2.99) <0.0001 
 Malignancy 1.38 (1.08–1.78) 0.011 0.99 (0.76–1.29) 0.924 
 Paralysis 1.01 (0.44–2.34) 0.982 1.19 (0.51–2.77) 0.684 
 Peripheral vascular disease 1.99 (1.67–2.38) <0.0001 1.53 (1.25–1.86) <0.0001 
 Prior CABG 0.95 (0.68–1.32) 0.754 0.70 (0.50–0.98) 0.040 
 Prior MI 1.52 (1.25–1.85) <0.0001 1.11 (0.90–1.36) 0.344 
 Psychotic disorder 0.80 (0.45–1.42) 0.441 0.74 (0.39–1.41) 0.361 
 Rheumatic disease 1.30 (0.96–1.77) 0.092 1.15 (0.83–1.58) 0.406 
 Renal failure 2.06 (1.72–2.46) <0.0001 1.70 (1.38–2.08) <0.0001 
 Valvular disease 1.55 (1.14–2.12) 0.006 1.06 (0.77–1.46) 0.712 
Revascularization 0.39 (0.32–0.47) <0.0001 0.59 (0.48–0.73) <0.0001 
 PCI 0.42 (0.35–0.52) <0.0001 0.57 (0.45–0.70) <0.0001 
 CABG 0.65 (0.47–0.91) 0.012 0.78 (0.55–1.11) 0.172 
STEMI 0.99 (0.82–1.21) 0.932 1.80 (1.46–2.22) <0.0001 
University hospital 0.65 (0.54–0.78) <0.0001 0.69 (0.57–0.84) 0.0001 
Year of MI  0.048  0.003 
 2005–2009 Reference  Reference  
 2010–2014 0.85 (0.68–1.05) 0.127 0.77 (0.62–0.96) 0.021 
 2015–2018 0.76 (0.61–0.95) 0.015 0.66 (0.52–0.84) 0.001 
VariableUnivariableMultivariable
HR (95% CI)PHR (95% CI)P
Age, years  <0.0001  <0.0001 
 <60 Reference  Reference  
 60–79 2.42 (1.95–3.01) <0.0001 2.25 (1.78–2.84) <0.0001 
 ≥80 4.13 (3.09–5.53) <0.0001 3.62 (2.59–5.05) <0.0001 
Women 0.90 (0.75–1.08) 0.271 0.91 (0.74–1.10) 0.325 
Comorbidities     
 Alcohol abuse 1.52 (1.08–2.13) 0.017 1.50 (1.04–2.17) 0.030 
 Atrial fibrillation 1.82 (1.46–2.27) <0.0001 1.10 (0.87–1.40) 0.435 
 Cerebrovascular disease 1.67 (1.37–2.04) <0.0001 1.16 (0.94–1.43) 0.158 
 Chronic pulmonary disease 1.53 (1.22–1.93) 0.0003 1.25 (0.98–1.60) 0.073 
 Diabetic retinopathy or glaucoma 0.76 (0.63–0.92) 0.003 0.95 (0.77–1.17) 0.625 
 Diabetic hypoglycemic coma 1.16 (0.90–1.50) 0.256 1.18 (0.91–1.86) 0.069 
 Diabetic neuropathy 1.00 (0.75–1.33) 0.988 1.11 (0.82–1.49) 0.495 
 Diabetic ketoacidosis 1.07 (0.78–1.46) 0.688 1.35 (0.98–1.86) 0.069 
 Dementia 2.09 (1.46–2.98) <0.0001 1.33 (0.91–1.93) 0.140 
 Heart failure 2.55 (2.13–3.05) <0.0001 1.76 (1.44–2.16) <0.0001 
 Hypertension 1.60 (1.27–2.01) <0.0001 1.05 (0.82–1.36) 0.684 
 Liver disease 2.39 (1.68–3.41) <0.0001 2.10 (1.47–2.99) <0.0001 
 Malignancy 1.38 (1.08–1.78) 0.011 0.99 (0.76–1.29) 0.924 
 Paralysis 1.01 (0.44–2.34) 0.982 1.19 (0.51–2.77) 0.684 
 Peripheral vascular disease 1.99 (1.67–2.38) <0.0001 1.53 (1.25–1.86) <0.0001 
 Prior CABG 0.95 (0.68–1.32) 0.754 0.70 (0.50–0.98) 0.040 
 Prior MI 1.52 (1.25–1.85) <0.0001 1.11 (0.90–1.36) 0.344 
 Psychotic disorder 0.80 (0.45–1.42) 0.441 0.74 (0.39–1.41) 0.361 
 Rheumatic disease 1.30 (0.96–1.77) 0.092 1.15 (0.83–1.58) 0.406 
 Renal failure 2.06 (1.72–2.46) <0.0001 1.70 (1.38–2.08) <0.0001 
 Valvular disease 1.55 (1.14–2.12) 0.006 1.06 (0.77–1.46) 0.712 
Revascularization 0.39 (0.32–0.47) <0.0001 0.59 (0.48–0.73) <0.0001 
 PCI 0.42 (0.35–0.52) <0.0001 0.57 (0.45–0.70) <0.0001 
 CABG 0.65 (0.47–0.91) 0.012 0.78 (0.55–1.11) 0.172 
STEMI 0.99 (0.82–1.21) 0.932 1.80 (1.46–2.22) <0.0001 
University hospital 0.65 (0.54–0.78) <0.0001 0.69 (0.57–0.84) 0.0001 
Year of MI  0.048  0.003 
 2005–2009 Reference  Reference  
 2010–2014 0.85 (0.68–1.05) 0.127 0.77 (0.62–0.96) 0.021 
 2015–2018 0.76 (0.61–0.95) 0.015 0.66 (0.52–0.84) 0.001 
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