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Table 1

Demographics and biochemical and CMR characteristics

HV (n = 20)Veteran athletes (n = 12)T2D (n = 36)ANOVA
Age (years) 57 (51–62) 58 (52–64) 59 (57–62) 0.6 
Male (n, %) 12 (60) 7 (58) 23 (64) 0.7 
BMI (kg/m225 (23–26) 24 (23–26) 28 (26–29)Ω 0.006 
Fasting glucose (mmol/L) 4.9 (4.8–5.2) 4.9 (4.7–5.1) 9.1 (8–12)Ω 0.001 
Glycated hemoglobin (mmol/mol) 35 (34–38) 35 (33–37) 66 (58–69)Ω <0.0001 
NT-proBNP (pg/mL) 59 (41–75) 50 (36–64) 114 (58–171)Ω <0.0001 
Triglyceride index 3.7 (3.6–3.8) 3.6 (3.5–3.7) 4.2 (4.1–4.3)Ω <0.0001 
Cardiac structural changes     
 LV end diastolic volume (mL) 151 (134–167) 168 (150–186) 128 (119–137) 0.001 
 LV end diastolic volume index (mL/m283 (75–92) 91 (84–98) 66 (62–71)Ω <0.0001 
 LV end systolic volume (mL) 57 (48–65) 66 (55–76) 51 (46–56) 0.05 
 LV end systolic volume index (mL/m231 (27–35) 36 (32–40) 26 (24–29) 0.002 
 LV stroke volume (mL) 94 (84–104) 102 (91–113) 77 (71–83)Ω 0.0003 
 LV ejection fraction (%) 63 (61–65) 62 (60–65) 60 (59–62) 0.2 
 LV mass (g) 96 (83–109) 108 (89–127) 99 (92–106) 0.5 
 LV mass/LV end diastolic volume (mg/mL) 0.64 (0.59–0.70) 0.64 (0.57–0.70) 0.79 (0.74–0.85)Ω 0.0008 
Rest and stress strain, diastolic assessment,  ejection fraction, and perfusion     
 Stress RPP (bpm*mmHg) 16,196 (14,088–18,342) 15,121 (12,976–17,854) 16,907 (14,402–19,524) 0.07 
 Rest RPP (bpm*mmHg) 6,583 (4,877–8,421) 5,995 (2,439–7,996) 7,077 (5,142–8,913) 0.09 
 ΔRPP (bpm*mmHg) 8,972 (6,335–11,703) 9,566 (6,629–13,101) 8,824 (6,143–11,563) 0.7 
 Increase in RPP (%) 138 152 137 0.07 
 Rest GLS (%) 18 (17–19) 20 (18–21) 17 (16–18) 0.008 
 Stress GLS (%) 25 (22–28) 24 (22–26) 20 (18–22)Ω 0.01 
 Rest E/A ratio 1.38 (1.13–1.62) 1.53 (1.35–1.98) 1.02 (0.89–1.15)Ω 0.0007 
 Stress E/A ratio 1.22 (0.95–1.49) 1.25 (1.01–1.37) 0.78 (0.70–0.87)Ω 0.0003 
 Rest LV EF (biplanar) (%) 65 (63–68) 63 (60–65) 63 (61–65) 0.4 
 Stress LV EF (biplanar) (%) 77 (74–80) 74 (70–78) 76 (74–78) 0.4 
 Stress MBF (mL/g/min) 1.89 (1.70–2.02) 1.97 (1.56–2.37) 1.49 (1.34–1.63)Ω 0.006 
 Rest MBF (mL/g/min) 0.68 (0.64–0.74) 0.60 (0.50–0.70) 0.67 (0.62–0.71) 0.2 
 Myocardial perfusion reserve 2.70 (2.38–3.02) 3.44 (2.54–4.35) 2.37 (2.11–2.62) 0.01 
Rest and stress myocardial energetics     
 Stress RPP (bpm*mmHg) 15,732 (13,786–18,213) 14,738 (12,770–17,214) 16,234 (13,979–18,531) 0.07 
 Rest RPP (bpm*mmHg) 6,397 (4,596–8,201) 5,846 (4,078–7,606) 6,983 (5,003–8,901) 0.09 
 ΔRPP (bpm*mmHg) 9,416 (6,532–12,059) 9,196 (6,335–11,836) 9,151 (6,500–11,721) 0.7 
 Increase in RPP (%) 145 148 135 0.2 
 Rest PCr/ATP 1.98 (1.80–2.16) 2.07(1.86–2.29) 1.72 (1.46–1.70)Ω 0.03 
 Stress PCr/ATP 1.62 (1.40–1.84) 1.61 (1.37–1.85) 1.41 (1.35–1.57) 0.3 
P value, rest and stress PCr/ATP ratio 0.004 0.03 0.001  
HV (n = 20)Veteran athletes (n = 12)T2D (n = 36)ANOVA
Age (years) 57 (51–62) 58 (52–64) 59 (57–62) 0.6 
Male (n, %) 12 (60) 7 (58) 23 (64) 0.7 
BMI (kg/m225 (23–26) 24 (23–26) 28 (26–29)Ω 0.006 
Fasting glucose (mmol/L) 4.9 (4.8–5.2) 4.9 (4.7–5.1) 9.1 (8–12)Ω 0.001 
Glycated hemoglobin (mmol/mol) 35 (34–38) 35 (33–37) 66 (58–69)Ω <0.0001 
NT-proBNP (pg/mL) 59 (41–75) 50 (36–64) 114 (58–171)Ω <0.0001 
Triglyceride index 3.7 (3.6–3.8) 3.6 (3.5–3.7) 4.2 (4.1–4.3)Ω <0.0001 
Cardiac structural changes     
 LV end diastolic volume (mL) 151 (134–167) 168 (150–186) 128 (119–137) 0.001 
 LV end diastolic volume index (mL/m283 (75–92) 91 (84–98) 66 (62–71)Ω <0.0001 
 LV end systolic volume (mL) 57 (48–65) 66 (55–76) 51 (46–56) 0.05 
 LV end systolic volume index (mL/m231 (27–35) 36 (32–40) 26 (24–29) 0.002 
 LV stroke volume (mL) 94 (84–104) 102 (91–113) 77 (71–83)Ω 0.0003 
 LV ejection fraction (%) 63 (61–65) 62 (60–65) 60 (59–62) 0.2 
 LV mass (g) 96 (83–109) 108 (89–127) 99 (92–106) 0.5 
 LV mass/LV end diastolic volume (mg/mL) 0.64 (0.59–0.70) 0.64 (0.57–0.70) 0.79 (0.74–0.85)Ω 0.0008 
Rest and stress strain, diastolic assessment,  ejection fraction, and perfusion     
 Stress RPP (bpm*mmHg) 16,196 (14,088–18,342) 15,121 (12,976–17,854) 16,907 (14,402–19,524) 0.07 
 Rest RPP (bpm*mmHg) 6,583 (4,877–8,421) 5,995 (2,439–7,996) 7,077 (5,142–8,913) 0.09 
 ΔRPP (bpm*mmHg) 8,972 (6,335–11,703) 9,566 (6,629–13,101) 8,824 (6,143–11,563) 0.7 
 Increase in RPP (%) 138 152 137 0.07 
 Rest GLS (%) 18 (17–19) 20 (18–21) 17 (16–18) 0.008 
 Stress GLS (%) 25 (22–28) 24 (22–26) 20 (18–22)Ω 0.01 
 Rest E/A ratio 1.38 (1.13–1.62) 1.53 (1.35–1.98) 1.02 (0.89–1.15)Ω 0.0007 
 Stress E/A ratio 1.22 (0.95–1.49) 1.25 (1.01–1.37) 0.78 (0.70–0.87)Ω 0.0003 
 Rest LV EF (biplanar) (%) 65 (63–68) 63 (60–65) 63 (61–65) 0.4 
 Stress LV EF (biplanar) (%) 77 (74–80) 74 (70–78) 76 (74–78) 0.4 
 Stress MBF (mL/g/min) 1.89 (1.70–2.02) 1.97 (1.56–2.37) 1.49 (1.34–1.63)Ω 0.006 
 Rest MBF (mL/g/min) 0.68 (0.64–0.74) 0.60 (0.50–0.70) 0.67 (0.62–0.71) 0.2 
 Myocardial perfusion reserve 2.70 (2.38–3.02) 3.44 (2.54–4.35) 2.37 (2.11–2.62) 0.01 
Rest and stress myocardial energetics     
 Stress RPP (bpm*mmHg) 15,732 (13,786–18,213) 14,738 (12,770–17,214) 16,234 (13,979–18,531) 0.07 
 Rest RPP (bpm*mmHg) 6,397 (4,596–8,201) 5,846 (4,078–7,606) 6,983 (5,003–8,901) 0.09 
 ΔRPP (bpm*mmHg) 9,416 (6,532–12,059) 9,196 (6,335–11,836) 9,151 (6,500–11,721) 0.7 
 Increase in RPP (%) 145 148 135 0.2 
 Rest PCr/ATP 1.98 (1.80–2.16) 2.07(1.86–2.29) 1.72 (1.46–1.70)Ω 0.03 
 Stress PCr/ATP 1.62 (1.40–1.84) 1.61 (1.37–1.85) 1.41 (1.35–1.57) 0.3 
P value, rest and stress PCr/ATP ratio 0.004 0.03 0.001  

Values are means and 95% CI (lower limit of 95% CI – upper limit of 95% CI);

§

Statistical significance between HV and athletes;

P < 0.05 between athletes and T2D;

Ω

P < 0.05 between HV and T2D. The values in bold indicate statistical significance.

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