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Table 2

Linear mixed model for association between presence of diabetes and antidiabetic treatment and antibody levels over 6 months

β coefficient (95% CI) P value
Model 1Model 2
Presence of diabetes   
 Diabetes (vs. no diabetes) 0.15 (0.03, 0.28) 0.15 (0.03, 0.27) 
   0.01 0.02 
 Diabetes ∗ time   
  Diabetes ∗ T1 −0.20 (−0.34, −0.06) −0.20 (−0.34, −0.06) 
    0.006 0.005 
  Diabetes ∗ T2 −0.22 (−0.37, −0.07) −0.22 (−0.37, −0.07) 
    0.004 0.004 
Presence of diabetes and ongoing treatment   
 Diabetes with no insulin therapy (vs. no diabetes) 0.24 (0.08, 0.40) 0.24 (0.08, 0.39) 
   0.003 0.003 
 Diabetes with insulin (vs. no diabetes) 0.11 (−0.09, 0.30) 0.11 (−0.08, 0.31) 
   0.28 0.25 
 Diabetes ∗ T1 (ref: no diabetes ∗ T0)   
  Diabetes with no insulin therapy ∗ T1 −0.24 (−0.42, −0.05) −0.24 (−0.43, −0.05) 
    0.01 0.01 
  Diabetes under insulin ∗ T1 −0.18 (−0.41, 0.05) −0.18 (−0.41, 0.05) 
    0.12 0.12 
 Diabetes ∗ T2 (ref: no diabetes ∗ T0)   
  Diabetes with no insulin therapy ∗ T2 −0.30 (−0.50, −0.10) −0.30 (−0.50, −0.10) 
    0.003 0.003 
  Diabetes with insulin ∗ T2 −0.11 (−0.36, 0.13) −0.11 (−0.36, 0.13) 
    0.38 0.36 
β coefficient (95% CI) P value
Model 1Model 2
Presence of diabetes   
 Diabetes (vs. no diabetes) 0.15 (0.03, 0.28) 0.15 (0.03, 0.27) 
   0.01 0.02 
 Diabetes ∗ time   
  Diabetes ∗ T1 −0.20 (−0.34, −0.06) −0.20 (−0.34, −0.06) 
    0.006 0.005 
  Diabetes ∗ T2 −0.22 (−0.37, −0.07) −0.22 (−0.37, −0.07) 
    0.004 0.004 
Presence of diabetes and ongoing treatment   
 Diabetes with no insulin therapy (vs. no diabetes) 0.24 (0.08, 0.40) 0.24 (0.08, 0.39) 
   0.003 0.003 
 Diabetes with insulin (vs. no diabetes) 0.11 (−0.09, 0.30) 0.11 (−0.08, 0.31) 
   0.28 0.25 
 Diabetes ∗ T1 (ref: no diabetes ∗ T0)   
  Diabetes with no insulin therapy ∗ T1 −0.24 (−0.42, −0.05) −0.24 (−0.43, −0.05) 
    0.01 0.01 
  Diabetes under insulin ∗ T1 −0.18 (−0.41, 0.05) −0.18 (−0.41, 0.05) 
    0.12 0.12 
 Diabetes ∗ T2 (ref: no diabetes ∗ T0)   
  Diabetes with no insulin therapy ∗ T2 −0.30 (−0.50, −0.10) −0.30 (−0.50, −0.10) 
    0.003 0.003 
  Diabetes with insulin ∗ T2 −0.11 (−0.36, 0.13) −0.11 (−0.36, 0.13) 
    0.38 0.36 

Bold font indicates significance. Model 1 includes age, sex, previous COVID-19 infection, and vaccine doses received. Model 2 also includes ethnicity, type of COVID-19 vaccine, mobility level, cognitive disorders, and number of chronic diseases. Random intercept models with effects nested within study site and individuals were performed. A total of 481 (for analysis considering presence of diabetes as main exposure) and 452 participants (for analysis considering both presence of diabetes and ongoing therapy as main exposure) had at least two assessments of humoral immunity. T0, prevaccination assessment; T1, 2 months after the first vaccine dose; T2, 6 months after the first vaccine dose.

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